1902 Nile Agreement

During the battle for Africa, control of the source of the Nile was an important colonial destination for the British. Several agreements have been concluded to this effect, including contracts on the Nile. “To the Italian government: the fact that you have agreed and the fact that you felt it necessary to send us a joint communication on this agreement clearly shows that you intend to exert pressure, which we believe immediately raises an earlier question. This issue, which requires preliminary consideration, must therefore be referred to the League of Nations.¬†According to the scientists who studied the agreement, Ethiopia has a natural and valid right to the waters of the Nile. The rights of Ethiopia “… in a certain proportion of the waters of its own zone are indisputable… This would be enough to invalidate the agreement, which has no equivalent with Ethiopia. The Anglo-Ethiopian Treaty of 1902 was an agreement between Britain on behalf of Sudan (under British rule) and Ethiopia. Although the main objective of the treaty was to determine the border between Ethiopia and Sudan, Ethiopia “committed itself not to build or build work on the Blue Nile, Lake Tana or Sobat that would block the river from their waters in the Nile, except in accordance with the government of its British majesty of Sudan.” The 1902 treaty was often referred to as a treaty between Ethiopia and Egypt, which dealt with the use of Nile waters. It should be noted that such a treaty did not exist between Ethiopia and Egypt.

In fact, the treaty that was discussed was between Ethiopia and Great Britain. At the time, Egypt was a protectorate of the British Empire and the Egyptian government of the day could not enter into international treaties. When the League of Nations requested a statement from the British and Italian authorities, they challenged the questioning of Ethiopia`s sovereignty over Lake Tana. [9] Despite this, there was no explicit mechanism for implementing the agreement. A reliable and self-imposed mechanism, capable of protecting the property rights of each interest group, is essential if the principle of sustainable international water development is to be applied economically and environmentally. Somaliland participates Nile-river solutions the agricultural lands are not calculated for water, but are for irrigation and drainage improvements, the WUAs should be responsible for the payment, as it would produce a group responsibility of all members. Water and soil quality monitoring should be left to SEAs and notified to field supervisors, who then report to the Water resources and irrigation authority (MWRI). As the effort to produce clean water will be topical, the steps that can be taken as short-term results are: tapping into flat wells for drinking water from fields and unfed canals; As the soil acts as a filter, it can remove impurities. Advice to farmers on the development of irrigation systems should be taken into account for optimal performance.

(IWMI, 2006) It is recommended that the public safely treat food methods, use manure and mulch residues, reduce soil work and rotating crops that do not need the same nutrients to improve soil, water quality, and move to short-term crops to reduce water consumption. The correct use of recycled drainage water during a crop growth cycle is optimal. In Giza, they have the largest discharge of agricultural, industrial and domestic wastewater, which goes directly into the Nile through three sewers without treatment.